Sunday, February 10, 2008

The father of Jim Crow

Now I consider myself an amateur historian. Although my preference is ancient African history, I consider myself astute in the history of America and the West Indies. I may have a limited knowledge of music videos, movies and entertainers, but I do feel I have a descent and particular grasp regarding information pertaining to the early colonies, presidential history, and slavery (inclusive of reconstruction and Jim Crow).

I have been thinking about what I am about to assert for a while. I know that it is rare when all of the aforementioned areas decussate such to pronounce a concise conclusion. Especially as it relates to the actual start of Jim Crow policies in the South (up south too). And being that this is the single month that is allocated to black folks, and the single month when black folks see to care about knowledge about themselves, I want to take this time to propose a new postulate on history relating to folks like me. Nope, I aint going to state no fact I can copy and past from wikapedia or some book about some person. That to me aint history.

Historians tend to define Jim Crow and/or the period of Jim Crow as a systematic practice of discriminating against and segregating Black people in the America from the end of Reconstruction to the mid-20th century. More specifically, they tend to focus on the South when it was nationwide.

Most or many historians like to start the period in the late 1890’s and like to over dramatize the importance of one man purchasing a single train ticket. In 1892, Homer Plessy bought a first-class railroad ticket. They say by doing such he broke the law since we were only allowed to ride only third class in his home state of Louisiana. You know, ye old separate railway accommodations for the races. To make a long story short, the Supreme Court heard, and rejected, Plessy’s challenge. This validated segregation in public facilities and engendered an atmosphere that promulgated even more restrictive Jim Crow laws.

I can get with this, but it is not where I start Jim Crow, I start it with the 19th President of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes. Like George W. Bush, he was involved in a very contested election. The popular vote was 4,300,000 for Samuel J. Tilden to 4,036,000 for Hayes. Hayes's won via the electoral votes in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. So close was the election that some historians suggest that it created a constitutional crisis and almost began another civil war.

Upon this, although Hayes pledged protection of the rights of blacks in the South, he also said he wanted to restore the south to the local governments of the region. So to do this, he did the main act in my eyes to start the distasteful legacy of Jim Crow; he withdrew all of the Union Troops in the South. He really wanted to provide some motivation for rich white businessmen in the South to join the Republican Party.

This single act ended the period of Reconstruction and abrogated the only protection that would preserve the rights of freed African-Americans. Historians have also suggested that Hayes made a deal to remove the Union troops to gather the votes from the electoral college (from South Carolina and Louisiana).

So In honor of Black history month, I just wanted to assert the aforementioned proposition: that it was not Plessy’s case in the Supreme Court that started the turmoil and savagery that many of our ancestors who were raised in the south experienced, but rather the act of removing the Union Troops as implemented by President Hayes, that started the “strange Career of Jim Crow” as C. Vann Woodward put it in his 1955 tractate with the same title.

Now, like I said, I have no formal training in History, but I can think. And as I said, history involves connecting the dots and is more than remembering some absurd fact like who made the firs traffic light. So please do le me know what you think, and remind your kids, the next time they mention Jones, I mean President Hayes name in class, tell them to say they know who he is, that he is the father of Jim Crow. Now back to our regular scheduled programming (what ever is on my mind and my granny's funeral).

59 comments:

fallen angel said...

can i be honest? the way you think sometimes makes me tilt my head. hahah

i don't mean that in a bad way at all. on the contrary, i am already fortunate enough to be surrounded by a group of strong, Black, male thinkers. i guess i just am always pleased when i stumble upon other men who remind me of the current men in my life that i hold so dear to me.

VAR said...

Hey T..
Your training in history looks good to me.. You should serve up more plates that allow us to look at and think about history from all angles... Thinking is a beautiful blessing...

Hope you're doing well after the passing of granny. No doubt she was a proud granny. How's your folk in Memphis doing after that tornado? I pray all is well there...

Aunt Jackie said...

thank you for that piece, i was thinking myself what, if any would i share of my knowledge of black history this month, but you have put me to shame before I started.

i've never seen you in person but i must say that you sure have a sexy mind!

Ann said...

Wow.

What a wonderful post.

Finally, a kindred spirit who sees the *beginning* of segregation as the time of the coward adminstration of Rutherford B. Hayes, the spineless back-stabber of black rights and black citizens humanity. I wrote another one of my "Black History Month" essays, this one concerning the most inhumane aspect of the Nadir of segregation---the forced brutal expulsion of black citizens in towns all across America.

Please drop by and let me know what you think of it:


http://kathmanduk2.wordpress.com/2008/02/11/black-history-month-pbs-independent-lens-banished/

Curious said...

You are so absolutely right. Plessey vs Ferguson just made what was already going on legal. But I did not know who was in charge when they pulled the Union troops from the South and let whatever rights that had been achieved by ex-slaves disappear.

Like you, I believe these are the facts that should be told at black history month. I couldn't give a rats ass who built the 1st traffic light or sold the 1st ice box. Black history should be about people, not things.

BTW, I mentioned you in a post and used a picture from your blog. Let me know if that's cool or not.

Anonymous said...

I heard of him, but did not know he played that much of a part in American history. But I know now, the 19th president and the man who removed the troops so that lynching and mistreatment could occur at will. Thanks.

DeadMule said...

Curious hit the nail on the head, when he said, "Plessey vs Ferguson just made what was already going on legal." What was and is going on is often quite different from what's legal. If what's going on today were the same as what's legal, we'd have equality now.
Helen Losse
http://helenl.wordpress.com/

I will be identified as deadmule, because I'm the Poetry Editor there.

Dagny said...

Well said.

Wavemancali said...

Great post, I came over via DKY Bar and Grill and I'm glad I did. Look forward to reading some of your archives.

Christopher said...

Man's inhumanity to man.

I can't wrap my brain around the concept that not so many years ago, men and women were snatched from their home nations and sold like cattle into slavery.

I always wonder how different the awful legacy of slavery would've been if Africans had owned firearms? When European and American whites tried to force them into awaiting boats, the Africans could've put a few well-placed bullets into the invader's heads?

Throughout history, white Europeans and white Americans have stomped around the planet pillaging and taking whatever they want. Whether is was the real estate that makes up the USA, slaves or Iraqi oil.

What right do we have to behave this way? None, as I see it.

PrettyBlack said...

Damn man...you keep bringin' it and I can't keep up! I always thought it was about Plessy and his argument of mixed race and yada yada...But history is so distorted to take the blame away from the ones that need to be blamed that we are confused to believe anything put our way huh? My sociology prof taught me about Plessy...that's it...So this is what I'm gonna do...I'm gonna send my daughter over to you and you fill her head full of the good shit and I'll pay for college...deal?

dejanae said...

i always feel smarter after i read one of your posts
keep droppin the knowledge

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

fallen angel - im sorry, if it is any comfort, my statistics students say the same thing, and sounds like u have great men in your fam

Var - u know tequellia dont kill enough brain cells, i have too many, but im trying and thanks for the love

Jackie - thanks hon, a sexy mind, sorry im not actor, pro athelete, entertainer sexy

ann - i will chk it out, thanks, i do have another one on the brain


Curious - tanks fr the love, but i do have love for Garrett Augustus Morgan

Anon - thanks for th love and yea, keep that info under your brim

Helen - so true. and i will be back blogging thursday, but i will kep checking in when i get tired and bored, funeral aint fun

Dagny - y thank u


Wavemancali - first thats a lovely pic of you and your wife and thank u and tell DKY thanks for the love


Chris - u so rght, but i dont think it was because of their whitness, i just think the individuals were evil folk and good folk were to afraid to stand up, espcially after they say the ecnomic benefits of stealn from other lands and having people work for them for free

Prettyblack - lol, this aint no contest. I know u appreciate it and thts enough for me. and if i have my way, your daughter will end up a phsicist, histologist or a musician, sure u ant that?

dejanae - are smart anyway, just dont expect me to talk abot what folks be wearing on the red carpet, who is attractive, or who datin who

HILLBLOGGER said...

Appreciate this historiana on Jim Crow.

It seemed like it was just yesterday segregation was still the policy in many parts of the US -- with Obama at the very top, America has come a long way indeed.

Tamra said...

As usual, awesome post. I remembered coming across that nugget somewhere--can't remember where though. I'm *sure* it wasn't taught correctly when I was in high school though...

BTW, who says you need a degree or advanced training in history to have a good appreciation of it or to be able enlighten yourself and others? Hell, look at where the ones that *are* trained historians have gotten us (or not)...

Keep 'em coming!

ndpthepoetress - Jeane Michelle Culp said...

Great post Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T! Glad you hooked me up with a link to it cause your words represent the true meaning of freedom at it’s best. Your train of thought demonstrates individual opinion and ability to clarify what is between the lines of history that is constantly being spoon fed to Society via text that is chosen by others in what is masked as a better education for the whole. Don’t get me started Throwing Stones at the educational system, for not being provided with a wide-range of speculations available on any subject, obstructs the stepping stones to not only freedom of choice - rather also impedes free thinking, oppressing the imagination. Fortunately, People such as yourself are breaking away from such academic brain washing.

Ann said...

Okay.........not trying to rag on you, but, I know I am being super picky, but.........I would put the creation of segregation into the hands of TWO other presidents as well who came before Hayes....Andrew Johnson and Ulysses Grant.

Johnson was gung-ho for the ex-Confederates and even vetoed many civil rights bills for ex-slaves (until the Congress at that time overrode his vetoes to pass the Civil Rights Acts of 1866, 1871, to pass these acts to give blacks some semblance of rights)...and Grant, who started out helping blacks but became tired of the Republicans of his party begging for help in the South against white racists who were growing in numbers aginst equality for the ex-slaves.


When former black slaves went to the polls to vote, many of them were attacked and murdered. Adelbert Ames called upon President Ulysses S. Grant to send federal troops to aid him in putting down the Ku Klux Klan’s racist attacks. But, he was rebuffed by Grant: “The whole public are tired out with these annual autumnal outbreaks in the South….[and] are ready now to condemn any interference on the part of the Government”, urging the state of Mississippi to raise a militia and demonstrate “the courage and the manhood to fight for their rights and to destroy the bloody ruffians”. This was a death knell for the black politicians and black voters.

Yeah, it is real easy to fight when you are a small group going up against a horde of savages who seek your death and destruction.



So, you see, there were THREE men during Reconstruction (which was between 1865-1877) who stabbed blacks in the back:

-Johnson, lover of ex-Confederates whom he was willing to let back into the Union and absolve all debts against the South;

-Grant who allowed too many atrocities to occur against freed slaves, as well as atrocities against white men who sided with blacks in solidarity when he should have sent more reinforcements to the South to help his fellow white AND black Republicans;

-And Hayes who was the biggest coward of them all who cared nothing------and did nothing for the ex-slaves except to release them into the waiting hands of a nightmare that lasted 100 years. A nightmare worst than slavery.

Segregation.........or "Slavery, The Sequel" as I prefer to call it.

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

Ann - great point, being that Johnson was one of the three Presidents from M home state of Tennessee, I am well aware of what you have indicated. Not to mention that Johnson’s central assumption-that the Southern states could be trusted to manage their own affairs without federal oversight lead to Hayes's position. No to mention, his "christian" ehos formed his politics, especiall as it regarded blacks, n fact he thought that the freedman's Bureau was unconstitution and like most white folk then, thought it would make us lazy, or as he wrote to live a "life of indolence." Noe rember, dont know where these catarachs came from . but we was slaves LOL

And Grant - well one phrase, HE COULD BE BOUGHT WITH A BOTTLE OF WHISKEY

he aint do shit

but i also want to say i was only talking about Jim Crow, hope i did not evice that i was talking about the start of segregaction or reconstruction. I like the way u think

ndpthepoetress - Jeane Michelle - thanks for the kudos, i read your post, outside of mythology, i think that paulo Frerir in PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESED said it best, that education, the libreal arts, trains, and inculcates in the student and doesnt engender free thought, thus opression is taught. thank goodness i read commic books and drew football plays through my college and grad education. Before then there was paper footbal and suspensions and social clubs, oh and boks tha could be stolen from the libraries

Tamara - thanks hon, i got a few other subject i like, such as chemistry (but i got trainng in that) and extracting poisons from plants among others

Hillblogger - im prayining that u write, and that einstien and his assistan leopold Inveld were wrong - that time is relative

The Love Collective said...

Very interesting post. This should be a regular feature of yours.

Curious said...

T, your right again. Any man or woman who can provide for their family and contribute to society black or white, does not deserve my or anyone elses disrepect. And none was really intended towards your man.

I'm just biased because there's certain things that just don't thrill me.

BadTux said...

Hayes was a symptom, not a cause.

The Radical Republicans, after the majority of the population (blacks) voted for Republicans, had used the federal troops to install Republican governments in the South, at which point the American Civil War started up again in earnest.

The outgoing Democratic governments basically razed the infrastructure of government. They removed or hid all records, emptied the police arsenals of all weapons, basically left the incoming Republican governments with nothing but four walls and a door. They had to start over from scratch. And they had to start over from scratch *with no tax base*, since they had no record of who owned anything thus could not assess property taxes, the primary method of taxation in the day. And they had to start over from scratch *with no trained civil servants*, because all the trained civil servants were supporters of the Confederacy. And finally: They had to start over from scratch *with the former Confederates shooting at them*.

The miracle is that, with significant help from the Federal troops, they largely restored order. But at a price -- maintaining armies of occupation is *expensive*, as the case of Iraq makes clear, and none of this money was coming from the South, which was an economic basket case.

By 1870, northerners were tired of this drain on their resources, and started cutting deals with states to certify them as "reconstructed". In the remaining states, the under-seige Republican governments were outgunned by former Confederates who still had their military weapons, and throughout the South you can find the history markers... "the Battle of Jackson Square", 1873. "The Battle of Coushatta", 1871. All these "battles" in the early 1870's, where the former Confederates stepped out of the shadows and, while disinterested Federal troops looked on, slaughtered or ran out of town the lawfully elected governments.

So the Hayes-Tilden compromise, where the North pretended that it won the American Civil War and the Confederacy was allowed to take the last three states of the South back over as long as they pretended to be part of the United States and pretended to no longer have slavery, was the end of a multi-year process of retreat from democracy in the South. Rutherford B. Hayes could have no more kept the troops in the South than President Ullyses S. Grant could have. Indeed, by 1875 there were only three states left in the Old South that still had troops in them, the rest were already gone. Hayes, in the end, was a symptom, not a cause -- a symptom of Northern politicians no longer interested in imposing democracy in the South at gunpoint because of a) the cost, and b) the fact that it was black people, not white people, who benefited from democracy. Northerners, it turned out, were no less racist than Southerners when it was all boiled down to dollars and cents...

- Badtux the History Penguin

PS to Chris: Most of the slave trade was Africans selling other Africans who'd been defeated in one or another of Africa's endless wars to slavers. The Europeans never left their fortified enclaves -- the Africans sold out their own brothers. So if they'd all had guns... (shrug). Would have been a bigger body count in the wars, but someone still would have lost, and the ones who lost still would have been dragged in chains to one of the European enclaves and hauled off to the Americas. Black people can sometimes be their own worst enemy, it seems...

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

Te ove collective - thanks

Curious - dont take it like that, im saying he ws briliant, just knowing about him aint history

Now, Badtux - As I recall, this was an after thought since prior to the civil war, each southern state desired to be its on government (ie the republic of Georgia, the Republic of S. Carolina ect).

True, the gov was in shambles and broke, and th floating of the greenback was another cause of consternation. True, Grant would have not been able to do anything, but it is difficult to say since all he did was travel, drink and except expensive gifts from rich white men.

In addition, the rad republicans wanted to draw white southerners, rich ones back into the party, tha was thir only goal so they could send more carpetbaggers down to make what little capital remained in the South.

As far as Africans, an accessory, they did not pile them on ships and many were told that they would be treated well. And as far as the body count, i disagree, seems as if i recollect history properly, Ethiopia was the only African Country with guns, and likewise, the only one that was never colonized by Europeans

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

PS Badtux - a simple query, riddle me this, so when did jim crow start in your eyes?

BadTux said...

Well, I would say that October 4 and October 5, 1869, would be the beginning of Jim Crow. That is when the Republican governments of Tennessee and Virginia fell and the former Confederates took over and re-imposed their Black Codes. By the time of the Compromise of 1877 that installed Rutherford B. Hayes, of the 11 states that had formed the Confederacy, only three (Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina) remained in the hands of governments elected by the majority. So at best you can accuse Rutherford B. Hayes of being 27% responsible for Jim Crow...

Regarding the South and state's rights, I was reading the Confederate constitution the other day because somebody told me that it had something to say about how important slavery was as an issue in the American Civil War. Turns out that the Confederate constitution made it illegal for a state to ban slavery. Yep, slavery was more important to the Confederacy than state's rights! Go cram *that* down the craw of any Southern-fried cracker who tries to tell you that the American Civil War was about state's rights! So no, the Confederacy was not about states trying to act like little nations ("state's rights"). It was about slavery. Period. It's right there in the Constitution of the Confederate States of America, in friggin' black and white, Section 9, Article 4, booyah!

enigma4ever said...

Hey Dawg, this is enigma4ever from watergate summer..
....awesome post....I am in Ohio- Ctown and we are having huge internet probls...so I can not stay on long...but I wanted to say thank you for blogging on this , we all need to share and learn more...alwaus...very grateful

..( I have another small secret blog on Blogroll of Watergate summer- and it is called ENIGMA CAFE and I too am trying to blog for Black History month....if I can get my cable fixed- out whole neighbporhood is wrestling with it- bad storms- and ice cold- anyways please do stop by when you have time....)
thank you for bloggin and working on things that matter so much....

Stephen Bess said...

This is great information. I knew that Mr. Crow pop up his ugly head after Reconstruction, but I didn't have the connection with the presidency.

I need to look into the Reconstruction era and really study it. I'm sure that we could extract so many things that are connected to both the Pre- and Post-Reconstruction eras. Thanks for this.

Cloudscome said...

Thanks for visiting my blog and leaving a link to this great post. I appreciate your perspective and I am glad you are writing this history in a way that so many people can understand. You are right about it's significance. It seems to me both Plessy and Hayes played important roles in establishing the structures of segregation. The intention, attitudes and will to maintain it unfortunately permeated our society from top to bottom however.

As I see it we all need more lessons in African American history in every aspect, every month of the year. Learning that the first traffic light was developed by a Black man is just as important as learning the role of a president in establishing Jim Crow, IMO. Learning about the Harlem Renaissance is another part of our American history. There is enough to last all year, and I intend to keep learning!

Bohemian Hippie Chick said...

Excellent post...I'm gonna have to dig into your archives and see what else I've missed.

Kate-A said...

Nice blog. I'll be back.

Christopher said...

the Africans sold out their own brothers.

They sound like Republicans.

Too phucked up, man.

Christopher

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

Badtux - dont make me laugh, 27% as a proportion. LOL I respectfully disagree wit the aforementioned. The Black Codes, realy had bee in place since the Colony of Virgina, if u elect as do to include the Burguess Statue as its start, or a reasonable starting point.

But we can Agree on the latter, slavery had nothing to do with the civil war, it was a consequence of classic conflict (Agrarain verse Industralism) In fact Lincoln aint care about the slaves, he freed them to punish the south - 4 give me i type w 2 fingers

Stephen - u are welcome

enigma4ever - i gone check it , sorry to place your home boy on high post, Prsident Hayes LOL

Cloudscome - anytime nd do come back, and we have a lot of time t lear about all history, by doin that, i think folks in the world would be alot more civil

Bohemian Hippie Chick - y thank u maam, im honored. do enjoy and do come back


kate A - y thank as well, i will look forward to it

Christopher - LOL, dont let it bother you folk, used to ge i every day when i was an assistant prof at emory, i jus went to battle. Besides, he seems to be a god person, meanng at least he is wiling t engage in dialouge with me and maybe others. The GOP members I know dont and have a myopic understanding outside of party politics

Selena said...

I got wind of your blog when you posted on Siditty's blog this morning...

Your format, content and no holds barred Honesty is appreciated and fabulous. We need to see the real history behind the heirarchy that existed in yesteryear and today. I will take time to read the archives later this evening.

I will definitely be a regular visitor.

jali said...

THIS is the point of AA history month: learning something.

I made a wise choice in coming to visit today since You've given me a great starting point for my own research.

Thank you.

Big Man said...

So, Hayes is mofo I need to blame. Thanks for the tip. And I appreciate the comment on my blog.

Villager said...

Outstanding information. Reconstruction is my favorite historical period in US History. I never connected the dots to the end of reconstruction with a presidential election or specific president. I overstand much more than b4. Asante sana...

peace, Villager

Tony OH said...

Funny, I read The Strange Career of Jim Crow and you're right they never mentioned Hayes, however they did mention my homeboys dad, Mr. Lonnie King Senior, who was a civil rights activist who never really got his just due for his efforts in the struggle, so y'all look him up while you're at it. He's the Bomb...

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

Tony Oh - yea, grovegod's pop's was the shit. He was Kings right hand man. NPR did a special on him a few times. And I do belive that C. Vann Wodard did talk abouy President Hayes, in fact he spoke of how the election crisis of 1876-77 lead him to do wha he did, but no mention or assertion that it was the start of Jim Crow


Villager - hanks man, great interview BTW, and its nice to see folks take an interest in history

Big Man - no problem, and do come back by but tell me, how was Mardi gras this year?

Jali - thank u again, and im still waiting on the date and time and place of the spoken word so i can come , after we lay my grann to rest of course

Selena - thank u and enjoy (i hope) and pls do return

rikyrah said...

Superb post. I appreciate it when I can learn something new.

Don said...

Good stuff, all-mi-t

You broke it down to a science. I cringe everytime I think about Jim Crow laws because, as you stated, it's leaves a bad taste in my mouth.

Good thing I wasn't around when segregation was being forced, they would have been killed me. I'm talking about tearing up For Colored Only signs and everything.

Mes Deux Cents said...

Hi Torrance,


"Nope, I aint going to state no fact I can copy and past from wikapedia"

I resemble that remark!



:)

Spoonful of Sass said...

Thoughtful and interesting post especially on the history of Jim Crow. I agree with Ann when she dissected the three presidents that helped give way to segregation.

BadTux said...

Yep, and the Radical Republicans didn't care nothin' about black civil rights either when they suspended the Black Codes in the occupied South. What they wanted to do was punish the South by making those crackers suffer under Black-elected governments. Once they realized that it was costing them more money to punish the South than they were gettin' in satisfaction, that's when Grant started yankin' the troops out.

By 1875, still two years before His Fraudulency got elected to the Presidency, the Federal government had pretty much abandoned civil rights for blacks in the South. For example, see Mississippi's 1875 election, in which Democratic "rifle club" paramilitaries, operating in the open and without disguise, threatened or shot enough Republicans to decide the election for the Democrats. Republican Governor Adelbert Ames asked Grant for federal troops to fight back; Grant refused, saying public opinion was "tired out" of the perpetual troubles in the South. Ames fled the state as the Democrats took over Mississippi. One of the first thing the Democrats did was pass re-impose what of the Black Codes they could re-impose, the first of Mississippi's Jim Crow legislation to disenfranchise black voters and "keep them in their place" (i.e., as third-class citizens, below Jews and American Indians)...

So I'm still going to say that Rutherford B. Hayes was a symptom, not the cause, of the retreat from civil rights on the part of the Republicans in the North. The only reason the Radical Republicans had cared about civil rights in the first place was as a way to punish the South -- they no more cared about the black man then than they do today. Once they'd decided the South was darn well punished, well, you know what happens next. The only reason the blacks in the South didn't go the way of the Jews in Nazi Germany was because the South still needed slaves to hoe and pick the cotton, and callin' the slaves "sharecroppers" didn't change that no way, no how, except to make it cheaper to kill a black man. And so it went until the mechanical cotton picker ended the need for slaves to pick the cotton after World War II... funny, even white men like FDR or Huey Long who were "liberal" didn't care nothin' about civil rights for blacks until they no longer needed slaves to pick their cotton. Funny how that works, huh?

- Badtux the History Penguin

rawdawgbuffalo said...

Badtux - I really enjoyed this, we must do it again sometimes, but that "His Fraudulency" line had me rolling. But this rings so true, and it is sickly funny "even white men like FDR or Huey Long who were "liberal" didn't care nothin' about civil rights for blacks until they no longer needed slaves to pick their cotton. Funny how that works, huh?"

Spoonful of Sass - welcom and thanks and do return, what i agreed most with an was that we as a nation are not prepared to be analytical let alone critical, but more so compulsatory. But her history was accurate

Mes Deux Cents - LOL, i have resembled a many remarks lol. But i wast say u or any one, just how we have been trained to view and worse recant history

Don - yea, eventually, u and me both would have had our head on poles, but i'd prefer to think we would have been the ones to suceed, like the maroons of Jamaica and surinam


rikyrah - thank u maam, i hope u come back again some day

Rich said...

it's for this reason that I run with the Raw Dawg Buffalo. Keep bringing the noise.

I used to hate history. I actually thought it was boring until I worked as a substitute teacher and began reading about some of this very same stuff. It was quite enlightening and proved to me that if we don't know our history, we are destined to repeat it, cause they will pull the same wool over our eyes.

karrie b. said...

sometimes i wonder if i wouldve been a civil right activist if i were living in the 60's...

-karrie b.

One Man’s Opinion said...

Wow, that was a good read and a great bit of information. I knew about Plessy...all the other is news to me. I really enjoy the information you drop on your site.

Three Wise Men said...

Just fyi, we appreciate your visits and comments at our blog Three Wise Men. I've added a link to your blog on our frontpage, as we like what we're reading here. Keep up the good work.

Tha BossMack TopSoil said...

I must say, I like the way you think.

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

Boss mack - good look folk, im backnow, i hope u do return and enjoy what u read

Three wise men - no problem, and as for you and folks like skoolboi, Mega rich, don, bygbaby, the above, marcus and dc, its nice to see brothers represent the intellect as opposed to thuggin. hope u come back as well and when i get the time im gonna add u...u too mac

OMP - now we know u be dropping science on the regular

Rich - i know what u mean, until i started to look at it as more than just facts and dates

Karrie B - as for you young lady, you wouldnt have had a choice, my aunt pic is in history books cause whe she was in high school, she and 2 of her friends refused to leave the public library - thay had to study

Seattle Slim said...

Hey Torrance,

I suggest "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow" by Richard Wormser...that's a damned good book and eye opening. I figure it was apt to go with your post!

Brian said...

Great post. Gives me some information that I need to do some research. Good job of diving much deeper into a topic most of us simply take at face value and never question much further.

With a little research, I am sure that this would be similar to how much of black history is reported. That the actions that get the credit are merely publicized acts of situations that already existed.

Thanks for checking out my spot.

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

Brian - anytime, and thanks, and i agree history should be much more

seattle slim - thanks hon, and i have read that as well how is the bomb making going

jameil1922 said...

ok LOOOOVE the idea of telling children they know hayes was the father of jim crow. fantastic! i would love to see how a teacher got out of that one.

CapCity said...

THIS is why I LOVE BLOGS & BLOGGING. U r the TRUFF, Brother ALL-mi-T!

Torrance Stephens bka All-Mi-T said...

jameil1922 - but it is on us to read between the lines and explain as opposed to tell our children, they need to be analytical.

Cap - u just biased LOL

Monroe Anderson said...

Good point, Torrance, except for one thing: Black History is no longer celebrated in the short month of February. A Black history observance now runs from Kwanzaa, Dec. 26 to MLK Day through the end of February.
By my reckoning, that's two months, one week. Sooner or later, we may get 52 weeks flat. http://monroeanderson.typepad.com/my_weblog/2009/01/what-president-obama-represents-for-kings-legacy.html

Anonymous said...

[p]Prior to this, Nike with the high popularity in young group, slightly ahead of UGG [url=http://www.uggbootssuks.co.uk]ugg boots uk sale[/url] Boots that operated several years in China . T h e b e s t o f t h i s ? W h i l s t f r o m t h e 6 a m f o r a y s i n t o t r a i t s , i a c t u a l l y [url=http://www.uggbootssuks.co.uk]ugg boots uk outlet
[/url] v a g u e s w e a t s h i r t b o o t s a s i d e f r o m t h a t d i s s o l v e v e r y p r o g r e s s i n t o w i n t e r . The natural thermostatic benefits are our prize, which can effectively help you to keep the feet warm and dry, preventing you from the cold air outside . What is more, the exclusive made [url=http://www.uggkensingtonbootsale.co.uk]ugg kensigton boots sale
[/url] prior to the person's legs pattern that will provide you with a fine dupport to the feet through the dancing moment . Incluso por la sencilla razn de [url=http://www.uggaaustralias.co.uk]ugg boots australia sale[/url] que en 1930 los agricultores australianos, los pies calientes en el arranque . T h e s o l e m a y v e r y w e l l b e m a d e f r o m r u b b e r o r a r t i f i c i a l p r o d u c t s . Ugg Sale Uk Responsible Customer Trust Critical buildingSound Biodiesel Mixing is Vital to developing throughout the world customer confidence . M o s t l y w i t h i n N e p a l , T i b e t , L a d a k h a l o n g w i t h B h u t a n , t h e s e k i n d s o f p i l l s u g g b o o t s n o r d s t r o m a r e b e l i e v e d t o a c q u i r e v e r y g o o d s p i r i t u a l e l e c t r i c u g g b o o t s n o r d s t r o m p o w e r.[/p][p]a broad variety of merchants [url=http://www.uggbootssuks.co.uk]ugg boots uk[/url] need to offer welfare of it to acquire money . Synthetic leather or mesh [url=http://www.salecheapuggssbootsuk.co.uk]cheap ugg boots uk[/url] materials made good use of fabric lining,so that it has good permeability,the mat inside is comfortable too! . The color of Ugg boots is so real and it is the same no matter inside or outside . Whenever viable even if you have [url=http://www.salecheapuggssbootsuk.co.uk]cheap ugg boots[/url] never had the opportunity to wear boots by Marvin K . Perhaps as a gift . But it is true . In a sense, Ugg [url=http://www.uggkensingtonbootsale.co.uk]ugg kensigton[/url] boots are really superb choice UGG Bootss uk have created their own presence experienced worldwide.[/p]

Anonymous said...

Keep your memory card away from water of any form; rain, snow, splashes from your cup of morning coffee.
The usage of this card ranges out with many applications.
Then, following a winding pattern, the tarot reading reveals the
elements that influence obstacles, past, and so
on, to determine the outcome.

My homepage; dau doc the nho

Anonymous said...

Keep your memory card away from water of any form; rain, snow, splashes from your cup of morning
coffee. The most notable use is the Oyster Cards
used in London public transportation system. Android document
scanners aren't only great for capturing and storing business cards and receipts but also do a good job of capturing whiteboard notes, and content from magazines and books.

Feel free to surf to my blog: www.cafulcurasc.com.ar